ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DA COVID-19: UMA REVISÃO SISTEMÁTICA

Guanis B. Vilela Junior, Fabrício Cieslak, Hassan M. Elsangedy, Luciana S. Lirani, Kleverton Krinski, Luis F. Silio, Heleise F. R. Oliveira, Bráulio N. Lima, Carlos Henrique P. Fileni, José Ricardo L. Oliveira, Leandro B. de Camargo, Gustavo C. Martins, Vernon F. da Silva, Helena B. Viana, Ricardo P. Passos

Resumo


O coronavírus responsável pela COVID-19 que surgiu na China em setembro de 2019 e nos dois primeiros meses de 2020 se espalhou velozmente pelo mundo, foi declarada uma pandemia pela Organização Mundial da Saúde no dia 11 de março do mesmo ano, ou seja, mais de cinco meses após os primeiros casos na China. Tal cenário, mostra que neste intervalo de tempo o enorme fluxo de pessoas viajando entre a China e demais países, provavelmente eram vetores do vírus cuja alta taxa de contágio é hoje conhecida. A comunidade científica e os gestores de políticas públicas, simplesmente não conheciam as características básicas desta cepa do coronavírus, e de repente se viram diante do maior desafio de saúde pública dos últimos 40 anos: como minimizar os impactos da pandemia que apresentava crescimento exponencial em países ricos e pobres? Neste contexto, objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar uma revisão sistemática sobre o início da COVID-19, durante o mês de abril de 2020, utilizando as bases de dados SCIELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online), LILACS (American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), PUBMED (Public Medline or Publisher Medline), Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Worldwidescience, empregando os descritores: Covid-19 AND Control group AND Corona vírus AND Epidemiology COVID-19 AND Control group AND Corona virus AND Epidemiology OR “2019 nCoV” OR 2019nCoV OR “2019 novel coronavirus” OR “COVID 19” OR COVID19 OR “new coronavirus” OR “novel coronavirus” OR “SARS CoV-2” OR (Wuhan AND coronavirus) OR “COVID 19” OR “SARS-CoV”. O método PICO para revisão sistemática foi adotado nesta pesquisa. Para tanto, nove artigos foram selecionados para a leitura integral, conforme os critérios de inclusão estabelecidos. Todavia quatro artigos foram excluídos, por não estarem em conformidade com o metódo estabelecido, Esta revisão possibilitou concluir que estratégias como educação de higiene básica, isolamento social e equipamentos de proteção individual são eficientes para minimizar um eventual crescimento exponencial do número de casos. Em relação à intervenção medicamentosa, a utilização da hidroxicloroquina, azitromicina e dipiridamol, são coadjuvantes importantes no tratamento dos agravos metabólicos na COVID-19. Outra conclusão desta revisão é que para além do colapso do sistema de saúde, que é fruto da falta de investimentos são necessárias políticas públicas adequadas.

Palavras-chave


COVID-19; SARS CoV-2; revisão; revisão sistemática; epidemiologia.

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